An overview of the properties and history of chemical element nitrogen

It was he and his colleagues, who suggested many of the names we still use today including the word hydrogen, which comes from the Greek meaning water former and oxygen from the Greek for acid producer, since Lavoisier mistakenly thought that oxygen was the key component of all acids.

How was nitrogen discovered

N is used for the production of the PET radioisotope C Liquids colder than this are considerably more expensive to make than liquid nitrogen is. Free nitrogen is found in many meteorites; in gases of volcanoes, mines, and some mineral springs; in the Sun; and in some stars and nebulae. Uses of Nitrogen Family Elements Two of the elements, nitrogen and phosphorus, are essential for life. The word nitrogen therefore means nitre former. At atmospheric pressure, nitrogen condenses at In the liquid state , nitrogen has valuable cryogenic applications; except for the gases hydrogen , methane, carbon monoxide , fluorine , and oxygen, practically all chemical substances have negligible vapour pressures at the boiling point of nitrogen and exist, therefore, as crystalline solids at that temperature. Black used burning phosphorus as the final step in oxygen removal. It forms diatomic molecules, which means that there are two nitrogen atoms per molecule in nitrogen gas N2. Most of the Earth's atmosphere consists of nitrogen gas, N2. At about the same time, nitrogen also was recognized by a Scottish botanist, Daniel Rutherford who was the first to publish his findings , by the British chemist Henry Cavendish , and by the British clergyman and scientist Joseph Priestley , who, with Scheele, is given credit for the discovery of oxygen. How was it discovered?

The atmosphere also contains varying small amounts of ammonia and ammonium salts, as well as nitrogen oxides and nitric acid the latter substances being formed in electrical storms and in the internal combustion engine.

Nitrogen was also studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley, who referred to it as burnt air or dephlogisticated air.

Except for nitrogen, the elements are solid at room temperature.

An overview of the properties and history of chemical element nitrogen

Below Because the atoms form double or triple bonds, the compounds tend to be stable and potentially toxic. Larger chains, rings and structures of nitogen hydrides are also known but virtually unstable. Elemental nitrogen can be used as an inert atmosphere for reactions requiring the exclusion of oxygen and moisture. Even though there is so much nitrogen in the air, there is very little in the Earth's crust. In the ground state, they are arranged in the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 x2p1 y2p1 z. Nitrogen also occurs in mineral deposits of nitre or saltpetre potassium nitrate, KNO3 and Chile saltpetre sodium nitrate, NaNO3 , but these deposits exist in quantities that are wholly inadequate for human needs. This is one of a variety of oxides, the most prominent of which are nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2 , which both contain an unpaired electron. However, in his list of the then known elements, Lavoisier included the term azote or azotic gas for what we now call nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was also known by the name mephitic air the word mephitic meaning noxious or poisonous. Discovered by: Daniel Rutherford in Nitrogen is the first element in column 15 of the periodic table. Except for nitrogen, the elements are solid at room temperature. Burning phosphorus has a very high affinity for oxygen and is efficient at removing it completely. This is not possible for its vertical neighbours; thus, the nitrogen oxides , nitrites , nitrates , nitro- , nitroso -, azo -, and diazo -compounds, azides , cyanates , thiocyanates , and imino -derivatives find no echo with phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, or bismuth. Nitrogen is created as part of the fusion processes in stars.

In this configuration nitrogen is very inert, meaning that it doesn't typically react with other compounds. Nitrogen is taken from the atmosphere and converted to nitrates through lightning storms and nitrogen fixing bacteria. Nitrogen also occurs in mineral deposits of nitre or saltpetre potassium nitrate, KNO3 and Chile saltpetre sodium nitrate, NaNO3but these deposits exist in quantities that are wholly inadequate for human needs.

Except for nitrogen and bismuth, the elements exist in two or more allotropic forms. It has been used as a poison and as a rodenticide.

This noxious mixture no longer supports life and so was called mephitic.

10 uses of nitrogen

At atmospheric pressure, nitrogen is liquid between 63 K and 77 K.

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Element Group 15