The racial warfare theory was an emerging belief in the late nineteenth century advocated by Theodore Roosevelt in The Winning of the West. They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves.
European characteristics fell by the wayside and the old country's institutions e. The follow-up to that study, The United States, — The Nation and Its Sectionswould not be published until after his death.
This sectionalism had a great deal of influence on the development of the frontier. Western historians who still adhere roughly to Turner's approach accuse their opponents of mistaking a simple-minded political correctness for good scholarship in their quest to recount only the doom and gloom of the Western past.
The Turner thesis became the dominant interpretation of American history for the next century, although after the early s "new western historians," who rejected Turner's grand theory for its lack of racial inclusiveness and overly triumphant paradigm, emphasized a more inclusive approach to frontier history.
The more foreboding and cautionary tale which increasing numbers of Western historians have offered in place of Turner's account has provoked sharp controversy.
Moreover, as the 19th century wore on, the role of the federal government and large corporations grew increasingly important.