Peterson, B. Ledbetter, M. Kroger, J. Those who are unsuccessful at this stage—with their initiative misfiring or stifled by over-controlling parents—may develop feelings of guilt. Correlates between psychosocial development and coping resources in the elderly. The life cycle completed: A review.
It's very useful however to gain a more detailed understanding of the meaning behind these words because although Erikson's choice these words is very clever, and the words are very symbolic, using just one or two words alone is not adequate for truly conveying the depth of the theory, and particularly the emotional and behavioural strengths that arise from healthy progression through each crisis.
College-educated women's personality development in adulthood: Perceptions and age differences: Psychology and Aging Vol 17 2 Jun This chart attempts to capture and present concisely the major elements of Erikson's theory, drawn from various Erikson books, diagrams and other references, including Childhood and Society ; Identity and the Life Cycle ; The Life Cycle Completed: A Reviewrevised by Joan Erikson ; and Vital Involvement in Old Age Further Information.
Kidwell, J. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations.
Same for grandparents. The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile, and discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc.